TermDescriptionAATheAluminumAssociation,basedinUSAisresponsiblefortheindustrystandardgrainrefiner(TP-1)anddissolution(TP-2)tests,aswellaschemicalspecificationsformasteralloysandcompacts.AASAtomicAbsorptionSpectrometryforchemicalanalysisespeciallyatlowlevels.ACFTAlcoacoldfingertestassessesgrainrefinerability,particularlytopredicttheonsetoftwincolumnargrains.AFSAmericanFoundrymen"sSociety.AgglomerationTermcommonlyusedtodescribestickingtogetherofgrainrefinerparticles.AlB2,AlB12ThetwopossiblephasesfoundinBAlmasteralloys.Al2O3AluminaorAluminiumoxide.AlloyAmixturecontainingmorethanoneelement.AlloyingElementAnelementthatisaddedtometaltochangeitsphysicalcharacteristicsandproperties.AluminaAluminiumoxide(commonlyusedtomakeCFFsandthefilteringcomponentofDBFs).AluminidePhasecontainingAlplusanotherelemente.g.TiAl3.Aluminium(Aluminum)The13thelementintheperiodictable,andtheearth"smostabundantmetallicelement,aluminiumwasdiscoveredin1827.Aluminiumhasanatomicweightof26.98,ameltingpointof660.32°C(1220.576°F),andaboilingpointof2529°C(4566°F).Aluminiumisanabundant,lightmetalwithasilveryappearance,usedinthemanufactureofproductsrequiringlightweight,resistancetocorrosionandelectricalconductivity.AmorphousGlass-like,asinAlalloysdevelopedforstudyingnucleation.AnnealingAheattreatmentcommonlyusedtosoftenanaluminiumalloy.AnodePositiveelectrodemadeofcarboninelectrolyticcellsusedinthesmeltingprocess.Anodizing(alsoAnodicOxidation)Coatingaluminiumbyatreatmentthatcreatesathinandextremelyhardlayerofaluminiumoxideonthesurfaceofthemetal.Dye-coloredcoatingscanbeappliedduringtheprocess.ASTMAmericanSocietyforTestingMaterial.ASTMissuesstandardspecificationsonmaterials,includingmetalsandalloys.BauxiteAsoiltypeandorederivedfromtheweatheringofgranite(sialicparentrock),anddepletedofnearlyallsolubleelements.Aluminiumoxidesarevirtuallyallthatremainaftercalcium,potassium,sodiumandsiliconhavebeenleachedout.Bauxiteistheprincipleoreofaluminium,andispredominantlyfoundintropicalandsub-tropicalregions.BilletAcylindricalaluminiumingotusedtomakeextrusions.CarbideParticlecontainingcarbon(e.g.aluminiumcarbide,titaniumcarbide).CathodeNegativeelectrodeinelectrolyticcellsusedinthesmeltingprocess.CastingPouringmoltenmetalintomouldsatanystageofthefabricationandmanufacturingprocess.CENComitéEuropéendeNormalisationisaEuropeanequivalentofAA,whichhasissuedchemicalspecificationsformasteralloys.CFFCeramicfoamfilter,commonlyusedinthecasthousetoremovedefectsfromthemoltenmetalstream.CFFsaretypicallyreplacedaftereachcasting.ConductivityAbilitytoconductelectricity.ContinuousCastingTermoftenappliedtotwinrollcasting,wherethinstripiscastdirectlyfrommoltenmetal.CryoliteSalts-basedflux(e.g.potassiumaluminiumfluoride).DBFDeepbedfiltersaremorecomplexthanCFFs,usuallyconsistingoflayersofaluminarefractoryofdifferentsizesandshapes.DBFsaregenerallyusedinmuchlongercampaignsthanCFFs.DCCastingDirect-chillcasting,acommonmethodusedinthewroughtindustrytoproduceslabsandbillets.DegassingTheactofreducingthehydrogenlevelofmoltenaluminium.ItisoftenusedtoalsoremoveinclusionsaswellasreducethelevelsofNaandCainthemoltenaluminium.DissolutionTheactofdissolving,especiallyappliedtocompactedadditives.DrawingorPressingForcingaflatmetalblankintoadieunderpressurefromametalram.Thisprocessisusedinthemanufactureofaluminium"hollowware".DuctilityThemeasureofamaterial"sabilitytodeformelasticallyandplasticallywithoutfracturing.EquiaxedStructureThemicrostructureofametalinwhichallgrainshaveapproximatelythesamedimensionsinalldirections.EutecticInalloysystemswitheutectics,thiscanbethelowestmeltingpointphaseandsothelasttosolidifywhencasting.InAl-Sicastingalloys,theeutecticisoftenmodifiedtoalteritsstructuretoenhanceductility.ExtrudingTheactofdeformingsolidaluminium,usuallyintheformofacylindricalbillet,bypushingitfromanenclosedcontainerthroughadietoformaproductofconsistentcrosssection.FiltrationRemovalofinclusionsfromthemoltenmetal(seealsoCFF,DBF).FinesFinest,dustymaterial.FluidityAbilitytoflowandfillamould.FluxThereareseveraltypesoffluxesusedinthealuminiumindustry,havingdifferentapplications,forexampletoreducehydrogengaslevelsortoremovedross.ForgingTheactofdeformingsolidaluminiumintoeitheraparticularshapebyhammeringorsqueezinginacloseddie,ordeformingbetweenflatplatens.FoundryTermoftenusedtodistinguishaproducerofshapedcastingsfromawrought(e.g.billets,slabs)producer.GrainRefinerAl-Ti-BandAl-Ti-CalloysreleasenucleantparticlesforgrainrefiningaswellasTiforgraingrowthrestriction.HeatTreatmentMethodusedtoalteranalloysproperties(e.g.annealingistosoften,whilstothertreatmentsaretoharden).HydrogenTheonlygaswhichdissolvestoanyextentinaluminium.HypereutecticAnalloywhosechemicalcompositionisabovethatoftheeutectic.InhypereutecticAl-Sialloys,thefirstphasetoformonsolidificationisprimarySi.Phosphorus-basedadditivesareoftenusedtorefineit.HypoeutecticAnalloywhosechemicalcompositionisbelowthatoftheeutectic.InhypoeutecticAl-Sialloys,thefirstphasetoformonsolidificationisprimaryAl.Grainrefinersareoftenusedtorefineit.ICPInductivelyCoupledPlasma,combinedwithopticalemissionspectrometryisacommonlyusedtechniquetodeterminechemicalanalysisofmasteralloys.IngotMetalcastinashapethatisconvenientforhandling,storage,shippingandremelting.Ingotsmaybesmallenoughtobestackedandhandledbyoneperson,orinthecaseofalargerT-ingot,maybedesignedtobehandledbyaforklift.InjectionAtermusedforforcingmoltenmetalintoadie,alsousedtodescribeintroductionofpowderalloyingadditivestoafurnaceofmoltenmetal.ISOInternationalstandardforqualitysystemmanagement.KAIF(seePAF)PotassiumaluminiumfluorideisafluxusedinsomeALTABcompositionsasitenhancesdissolution.AlsoknownasPAF.LAISAtechniquesimilartoPoDFAforartificiallyconcentratingtheinclusionspresentinamelttodetermineitscleanliness.LiMCALiquidmetalcleanlinessanalyserisatechniquefordeterminingmoltenmetalinclusionlevelsinalaunderinrealtime.MacsMiniALTABchargingsystemisaconceptforbulkalloyingwithminimalhandling.MetallographyFlat,polishedsectionsofsamplesareexaminedunderamicroscope,typicallyatmagnificationsrangingfromX50toX1000.Thisiscalledmetallography,andisusedbygrainrefinerproducerstoassessquality.ModificationTermappliedtorefiningoftheeutecticstructureinAl-Sicastingalloys.NormallydonewithSr,butalsoNaorSbused.OxideAluminiumreadilyformsoxideswhicharegenerallyunwantedinclusions.PAF(seeKAIF)PotassiumaluminiumfluorideisafluxusedinsomeALTABcompositionsasitenhancesdissolution.AlsoknownasKAIF.PoDFAPorousdiscfiltrationapparatusisatechniquetoartificiallyconcentrateinclusionspresentinmoltenaluminiumandsodeterminecleanlinesslevels.PoisonTermappliedtolossofgrainrefininginducedbycertainelements,particularlyZronTiBAl.PorosityThepresenceofporesinacaststructure.Theonlygaswhichdissolvestoanyextentinaluminiumishydrogen.Whenmoltenaluminiumissolidifiedthelevelofhydrogenthatcanremaininsolutionisreduced,soporositymayresult.PorousPlugAtechniquetointroducefluxesorgasesintomoltenaluminiumbyinsertingapluginthefurnacefloor.ppiPoresperinch,termappliedtodescribeporesizesinceramicfoamfilters.ppmPartspermillion.ProcessControlTheactofcontrollingthekeyparametersofaprocesstotrytoensureproductconsistency.QSTheautomotivequalitymanagementsystemstandard.(QS9000)QuenchingRapidcoolingofametalfromanelevatedtemperature.RefractoryAhighmeltingpointmaterial,variousrefractoriesexistintheindustrywithmanyapplicationsincludingthedirectcontainmentofmoltenaluminium.RFIRotaryfluxinjectionforinjectingfluxintoamelt.RecoveryForanalloyingadditivethisreferstohowmuchofthealloyingelementinthemasteralloyorcompactedadditiveendsupinthefinalalloy.RollingTheactofsqueezingbetweentworollerstoformaflatplate,sheetorfoilsection.Rollingisoftenfirstdone"hot"toreducethicknessofthecastsectioninasfewpassesaspossible."Cold"rollingprovidestrengthbenefitsaswellasbeingusedtoachievefinaldimensionaltolerances.SEMScanningelectronmicroscopy,usedforhighmagnificationstudyofmetalsurfaces.SmeltingProcessofproducingmoltenaluminiumbythereductionofalumina.SolubilityAmeasureofhowwellanadditivedissolvesinmoltenaluminium(canalsobeappliedtosolidsolutions)SpectrometryMethodcommonlyusedtodeterminethechemicalcompositionofanalloy.TEMTransitionelectronmicroscopy,usedforveryhighmagnificationstudyofinternalmetallicstructures.ThermalAnalysisAtechniqueusedinfoundriestoassesshowgoodgrainrefiningwillbeaswellastheeutecticnucleationtemperature.Itisbasedonassessingthecoolingcurveofasolidifyingsample.TiAl3ParticlefoundinTiBAlandTiCAlandTiAlalloys,dissolvesinmoltenAltoplayaroleingraingrowthrestriction.TiB2ParticlefoundinTiBAlalloys,playsakeyroleingrainrefining.TiCParticlefoundinTiCAlalloys,playsakeyroleingrainrefining.TP-1TheAluminumAssociation"sstandardtestforassessinggrainrefinerability.TP-2TheAluminumAssociation"sstandardtestforassessingsolubility.TwinRollCastingSeeContinuousCasting.WroughtAluminiumWroughtmeansworked,socanbeappliedtorolling,extrudingandforging.

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